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Marqués MP, Cantalejo A, Fernández S, García MN, García RM, Laguna C et al. Prevención de la diabetes tipo 2 a través de un programa estandarizado de Educación para la Salud. Metas de Enferm jun 2009; 12(5):58-64
Mª Pilar Marqués Macías, Almudena Cantalejo Martín, Silvia Fernández Sánchez, Mª Nieves García Hernández, Rosa Mª García Martín
Enfermeras de EAP. Centro de Salud de Arévalo (Ávila).
C/ Descalzos, 49. 05200 Arévalo (Ávila).
Contact email: email@example.com
Given the high prevalence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2), a research study on diabetes prevention is being conducted in Europe via an intervention on modifiable life styles known as “PLAN Study”. The work herein depicted is part of the said European study.
Objective: to assess the effectiveness of an intervention programme on changes in the life style (diet and physical exercise) to prevent the onset of DM2 in high-risk subjects.
Material y methods: longitudinal prospective study in a population sample aged 45 to 70, both genders, in a basic health area in Arévalo. A randomised sampling by health card was carried out, which was subsequently stratified by area: rural and semi-urban, with a sample size comprised of 221 people.
The study was carried out in three phases: Phase 1: screening by means of the Findrisk scale, clinical interview, anthropometrics, blood work and oral glucose tolerance test. After the screening phase, subjects with a Findrisk ?14 were informed of the group intervention programme; Phase 2: group intervention, consisting of 4 theory-practical workshops; Phase 3: continued intervention. Reinforcement of motivation and annual clinical visits.
Results: 21 diabetic subjects were excluded. The Findrisk score was ? 14 (high risk) in 120 subjects. Prevalence of unknown diabetes was 7,2%. Of the 66 candidates from both genders, 55 (83,3%) accepted to participate in the programme and 47 completed it. There were no significant changes in the risk associated to the body mass index. The percentage of initial inactivity was 58%, dropping to 11% after the intervention (p<0,01) and 25% at the 1 year follow up control visit (p<0,01). 70% had an abdominal perimeter of risk at initiation of the study, 67% after the intervention and 86% at the 1 year follow up control visit (p<0,05). The percentage with a high risk index (Findrisk 15-20) was 62% at initiation and 40% at the 1 year follow up control visit (p<0,01).
Conclusions: the intervention programme to introduce lifestyle modifications for prevention of type 2 diabetes in high risk individuals is effective, but it is also important to maintain the individual motivated over time.
The Findrisk scale is a valuable instrument to determine the risk of developing DM2.
type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; prevention; risk factors; Health EducationPrimary Care
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