The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of healthcare professionals from the Spanish outpatient medical emergency services

Section: Originals

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Soto-Cámara R, Cárdaba-García RM, García-Santa-Basilia N, Onrubia-Baticón H, Matellán-Hernández MP, Navalpotro-Pascual S, Grupo IMPSYCOVID-19. Impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 en la salud mental de profesionales sanitarios de los servicios de emergencias médicas extrahospitalarios españoles. Metas Enferm may 2023; 26(4):22-32. Doi: 2023.26.1003082091


Raúl Soto-Cámara1, Rosa Mª Cárdaba-García2, Noemí García-Santa-Basilia3, Henar Onrubia-Baticón3, María Paz Matellán-Hernández4, Susana Navalpotro-Pascual5, en representación del Grupo IMPSYCOVID-19


1Doctor por la Universidad de Burgos. Emergencias Sanitarias de Castilla y León-Sacyl. Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad de Burgos. España2Doctora por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Emergencias Sanitarias de Castilla y León-Sacyl. Departamento de Enfermería. Universidad de Valladolid. España3Diplomada en Enfermería. Emergencias Sanitarias de Castilla y León-Sacyl. España4Licenciada en Antropología Social y Cultural. Emergencias Sanitarias de Castilla y León-Sacyl. España5Doctora por la Universidad Pontificia de Comillas. SUMMA 112. Departamento de Enfermería. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. España

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Raúl Soto-Cámara. Universidad de Burgos. Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Paseo de los Comendadores, s/n. 09001

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Objective: to analyse the level of psychological impact on healthcare professionals from Spanish outpatient emergency services (OES) based on the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in the autonomous communities (AA.CC.) where they were working, identifying potential factors to predict higher severity.
Method: a multi-center cross-sectional descriptive study, including all healthcare professionals who were working in any OES within the Spanish geography between 02/01/2021 and 04/30/2021. The main variables were: level of stress, anxiety and depression, assessed through the DASS-21 scale. Sociodemographic, clinical and occupational information was also collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis of logistical regression was conducted.
Results: the sample included 1,710 healthcare professionals; 37.39%, 39.36% and 30.46% of the participants presented severe levels of stress, anxiety, and depression, respectively. Women, those younger or with less experience of work at OES, the technical staff in healthcare emergencies, those who declared previous use of psychotherapy and/or psychotropic drugs, or those who modified their working conditions, presented higher likelihood of developing more severe levels of stress, anxiety or depression; these factors varied according to the geographical area (classified by the cumulative incidence of COVID-19) where they worked.
Conclusions: the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 cases in the different autonomous communities has not determined the development of psychopathological levels of stress, anxiety and depression in healthcare professionals from the outpatient setting; however, sociodemographic, clinical or occupational factors have been detected in each one which predisposed them to a higher psychological impact.


emergency medical services; psychological stress; anxiety; depression; COVID-19; health personnel

Versión en Español


Impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 en la salud mental de profesionales sanitarios de los servicios de emergencias médicas extrahospitalarios españoles

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