Gender-based violence during the covid-19 pandemic

Section: Revisiones

How to quote

Barrado Espadero M, Lázaro Díaz A, Robledo Martín J. La violencia de género durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Metas Enferm jun 2022; 25(5):23-32. Doi:


María Barrado Espadero1, Alba Lázaro Díaz2, Juana Robledo Martín3


1Graduada en Enfermería. Hospital Universitario José Germain. Madrid (España)2Graduada en Enfermería. Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa. Madrid (España)3Doctora en Enfermería. Departamento de Enfermería. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM). Madrid (España)

Contact address

María Barrado Espadero. Paseo Santiago de Compostela, 1. 28942 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (España)

Contact email: mariabe_1996@hotmail


Objectives: to describe the gender-based violence (GBV) scenario during the COVID-19 pandemic in European Union countries and the United States: describing the incidence of GBV, identifying the risk factors exacerbated, detecting the consequences of the pandemic in women, learning about plans of action and detection for GBV, and understanding the view by the healthcare staff.
Method: a narrative review through search in the PubMed, Cinahl, Cuiden and Cochrane databases. The study included results regarding violence against women associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, and with study populations from Europe or the United States. Data from the statistical website of the Ministry for Equality of the Government of Spain were also included. Opinion articles were excluded.
Results: in total, 179 results were retrieved, and 24 of these were finally analysed. The incidence of GBV increased by 10.2-59%, and there was an increase in the number of telephone and online consultations up to 182.93% in Spain. Lockdown at home has exacerbated the risk factors for GBV such as isolation and control, and there has been a negative impact on the mental health of women, as well as on their employment rate. Interventions for detecting GBV have been implemented in many countries, although healthcare professionals state that they find it difficult to deal with the victims both personally, due to the protection equipment, as by video-consultation or phone call, due to the lack of non-verbal treatment.
Conclusions: the COVID-19 pandemic facilitated an increase in GBV by increasing the constant control by the aggressor and the lack of community resources.


Partner violence; Gender-based violence; Violence against women; coronavirus infections; quarantine; social isolation

Versión en Español


La violencia de género durante la pandemia por COVID-19